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Noureddine Yassaa guest of the TV show "Durabilis" on Canal Algérie

The Director of the Renewable Energy Development Center, Pr. Noureddine Yassaa, the Focal Point of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in Algeria was the guest of the TV show « Durabilis » which has been broadcasted on Canal Algérie to talk about climate change.

He started by evoking five conclusions of the fifth report of the IPCC released in November 2014 and showed that climate change represents a real threat for sustainbale development especially for weak countries as the African ones, and that the human impact on climate is abvious, that green house gases will constantly increase the number of serious impacts, lagerly spread and irreversible for populations and ecosystems and that there is still opportunities and means to stop or at least limit climate change and to face its disastrous impacts. The impacts of climate change reflect on the analysis of some indicators, worth knowing, temperature, drought, rainfalls and the rise of the levels of seas and oceans, acidification of oceans... As such, the report of the IPCC indicates that " Each of the last three decades was successively hotter than the previous on the surface of the Earth since 1850 ". The global average temperature of surface increased of 0.6 ± 0.2 °C; the temperature of Oceans and the sea level also increased.

The most alarming state in the IPCC report was the increasing of frequency of extrem natural evets, more heat and drought in dry areas, and rainfalls and floodings more important and more frequent in coastal areas, which appears on repeating disasters in weak countries that have not enaugh means to face them. One of the effect of climate change is food security which is being threatened especially in Africa and Latin American resulting from that state, more health problems in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries ( increasing intense heat periods, poor nutrition and moreover diseases due to water and food contamination). For Africa, the geographical change of diseases due to change in rainfalls and temperatures is to be considered.

Greater risks of species extinction were postpone. They concern a wide part of the ground and marine species, among which numerous " will not be capable to move enough quickly to find more adapted climates " during climate change. Crucial marine ecosystems, as those of the poles and coral reefs, are already particularly exposed to the acidification of the oceans. An increase of the mortality of trees could arise in numerous regions, while one of the stakes in the fight against the global warming passes by the reforestation.

The increase of the immigration and the populations moving because of poverty and of resources scarcity which could create competition between states would also be one of consequences of climate change. To limit by the end of the century the concentration of the carbon dioxide to 450 ppm (part per million) - value associated by scientists with a global warming of 2 °C - supposes to reduce the world emissions between 40 % and 70 % before 2050 and to return them to a level close to zero by 2100. Measures of mitigation should be applied scrupulously to reach there. The most concerned sector by these measures is the one of energy which represents 35 % of emissions, in front of agriculture and forest (24 %), industry (21%), transportation (14%), building (6%). the parte of clean energy (renewable, nuclear) has to triple or even quadruple by 2050, energy efficiency of buildings has also to be imporved, without neglecting the development of techniques of capture and storage of CO2.

With regard to consequences and risks of climate change on our region, Prof. Yassaa, points the increase of the number of extreme events, drought because of temperature rise nad floodings because of important rainfalls. Drought intensifies desertification and erosion and land degradation and water resources scarcity.

He underlined that industrilized countries are the first responsible of climate change. If we refer to the global carbon balance, China comes at the top with about 10.000 millions of tonnes of CO2 followed by Europe (28 countries) with more than 5.800 millions of tonnes of CO2 and India with 2.400 millions of tonnes of CO2. The African continent come out just with 1.200 milliob of tonnes of CO2.

In another subject, Noureddine Yassaa declared that our country set a strategy to fight against climate change, and it concerns in the same time the adapation which is a prioritary action and then mitigation. Among undertaken actions within adaptation : sea water dessalination, enhance rain water canalisation infrastrustures in order to avoid floodings, the green dam to stop desert encroachment and to fight against desertification,etc.

Concerning mitigation context, Algeria launched vonlontary actions to participate to the global effort to reduce green house gases by seting a National Programme for Renewabel Energy and Enegry Efficiency Programme to optimize energy consumption and to avoid wasting. Other actions are undertook in transportation sector : Public transportation ( subway, tramway), rail network electrification, the use of clean fuels,...

As regards the COP21 of Paris on climate change, Prof. Yassaa declares that the negotiations on the question of climate change, within the framework of the Durban Platform for a strengthened action ( ADP) crosses a decisive stage marked by the elaboration of a future climatic conditions post 2020, ambitious, universal and legally binding to all the States Parts in the Agreement of United Nations on Climate change, to stabilize the ground average increase in temperature in 2°C Celsius by the end of the century.

A draft text defining the component of the new climate agreement has been elaborated durint the 20th Conference of Parties (COP) in December 2014 in Lima, Perou, (Lima Draft), then in Geneva in February 2015. this document will serve as a basis for negociations of Bonn in the begining of June and which should lead to an agreement to be approved in the 21st COP in December 2015 in Paris, and enter into force during 2020.

The elaboration of these new climate conditions has to be made in a transparent, fair and exclusive way with the strict respect for principles and provisions of the Agreement of United Nations on Climate change in particular the common but differentiated responsibility, the respective abilities of countries and means of implementation (capacity building, transfer of experience and technology, projects financing). This climatic agreement does not have to constitute a brake in the development and in the prosperity of these countries. Developing countries have more urgent priorities as the eradication of poverty, the eradication of the infectious diseases, the access to education, the access to drinking water, the access to electricity....

Developing countries which are not previously responsible of climate change, but are the weakest must be accompained by developing countries to face impacts of climate change and their effects on the social and economic side ( less harvests because of climate change, migration of people and what comes with of conflicts in the region and sub region….). Appropriate machnisms and fundings must implemented in order to strengthen adaptation capacities to climate change.

Kaddour Hakima, Scientific and Technological Information Officer, CDER

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